Begin each source entry with the name of the author(s) or creator(s). The name of the
author is always inverted (Last name, First name)....
When a source has two authors, the second
name is shown in the normal order (First name Last name).
For sources with three or more authors, state only the first author’s name, followed by “et al.”
1 author Johnson, David.
2 authors Johnson, David, and Valerie Smith
3+ authors Johnson, David, et al.
The author of a source is not necessarily a person; it can also be an organization. If so, simply use the name of the organization.
However, if the organization is both the author and publisher, start with the title of the source instead.
Always include the full title of the source, including subtitles (separated by a colon
Use title case—capitalize all words apart
from conjunctions, prepositions, and articles. If there is no title, give a short description of the source, with normal sentence case capitalization.
The styling of the title depends on the type of source:
Italics when the source is self-contained (e.g. a whole book, movie or website).
Quotation marks when the source is part of a larger whole (e.g. a chapter of a book, a page on a website, or an article in a journal).
No styling when describing a source without a title.
When there is more than one version of a source, you should include the version you used.
example, a second-edition book, an expanded version of a collection
or a director’s cut of a movie would require the version to be included:
Porter, Michael E. Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. 2nd ed., Simon and Schuster, 1998.
Columbus, Chris, director. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. director’s cut, Warner Bros., 2002.
Book and movie citations always include the publisher element. The publisher is the
responsible for producing and distributing the source—usually a book
publisher (e.g. Macmillan or Oxford UP) or a movie production company (e.g. Paramount Pictures or Warner Bros).
Note that “University Press” is abbreviated to “UP” in a Works Cited entry. For example, the University of Minnesota Press becomes “U of Minnesota P”; Oxford University Press becomes “Oxford UP.”
When not to add a publisher
Sometimes the publisher is already included elsewhere in the source entry, such as in the container title or author element. For example, the publisher of a website is often the same as the website name. In this case, omit the publisher element.
You generally don’t need to include a publisher for the following source types:
Newspapers and magazines
Platforms like YouTube, Netflix, or JSTOR
When available, always include the publication year. If you also know the month, day, or
time of publication, you can include this if it helps
the reader to locate the source. Date ranges are also possible. For example:
25 Jan. 2019
14 Aug. 2017, 4:45 p.m.
Jan. 2017–Apr. 2018
Multiple publication dates
If there is more than one publication date, use the one that is most relevant to your research and take the date of the edition that you have used.
When a source does not state a publication date, add the date on which you accessed the information. For example: Accessed 22 Sep. 2018.
A container is the larger work that the source you’re citing appears in. For example, a
chapter is part of a book, a page is part of a website, and an article is part of a
If the source you’re citing is a self-contained
whole (e.g. a whole book), leave out this element.
The container title is always italicized.Elements 3 (container title) to 9 (location) all provide information about the container.
Sources with two containers
A source can also have two containers. If you watched an episode of a TV show on Netflix, the show title is the first container and Netflix is the second container. If you accessed a journal article through the database JSTOR, the journal name is the first container and JSTOR is the second container.
In most cases, only the title and location (often the URL or DOI) of the second container are included in the source entry. This is because databases like JSTOR don’t have relevant contributors, versions, publishers, or publication dates.
Datta, Hannes, et al. “The Challenge of Retaining Customers Acquired with Free Trials”. Journal of Marketing Research, vol. 52, no. 2, Apr. 2015, pp. 217–234. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/43832354.
Pay attention to the punctuation. The author and source title elements each end with a period. Elements within a container are separated by commas, and a period is used to close the container.
Contributors are added right after the container title and always end with a comma. Use a
description like “translated by,” “directed by,” or “illustrated by” to indicate... the role of the
contributor. For example:
Latour, Bruno. Politics of Nature: How to Bring the Sciences into Democracy. Translated by Catherine Porter, Harvard UP, 2004.
When a source has three or more contributors with the same role, include the name of the first contributor followed by “et al.”
If there are no other relevant contributors, leave out this element.
Sources such as journal articles (“vol. 18”), magazines (“no. 25”) and TV shows (“season
episode 5”) are often numbered. If your source has numbered...parts, include this in
the source entry:
Wieseke, Jan, et al. “Willing to Pay More, Eager to Pay Less: The Role of Customer Loyalty in Price Negotiations.” Journal of Marketing, vol. 68, no. 6, 2014, pp. 17–37.
It is also possible for a source to have an edition, volume, and number. Just separate them using commas.
What you include in the location element depends on the type of source you are
Book chapter: Page range of the chapter (e.g. pp. 164–180.)
Web page: URL, without “https://” (e.g. www.Seekrot.com/mla-style/quick-guide/.)
Journal article: DOI, with “https://”—or stable URL, without: (e.g. https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2018.1560449. or www.jstor.org/stable/43832354.)
Physical object or live event: Name of the location and city (e.g. Moscone Center, San Francisco. or The Museum of Modern Art, New York.)